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MetaCyc Enzyme: photosystem II

Synonyms: PSII

Species: Arabidopsis thaliana col

Subunit composition of photosystem II = [PsbS][PsbQ][PPD1][PPD2][PPD3][PPD4][PPD5][PPD6][PsbI][PsbH][PsbE][PsbC][PsbB][PsbO][PsbR][PsbY][PsbX][PsbW][PsbD][PsbA]
         Photosystem II 22 kDa protein = PsbS (summary available)
         Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3-1 = PsbQ (summary available)
         PsbP domain-containing protein 1 = PPD1 (summary available)
         PsbP domain-containing protein 2 = PPD2 (summary available)
         PsbP domain-containing protein 3 = PPD3 (summary available)
         PsbP domain-containing protein 4 = PPD4 (summary available)
         PsbP domain-containing protein 5 = PPD5 (summary available)
         PsbP domain-containing protein 6 = PPD6 (summary available)
         Photosystem II reaction center protein I = PsbI (summary available)
         Photosystem II reaction center protein H = PsbH (summary available)
         cytochrome b-559 α-subunit = PsbE (summary available)
         Photosystem II CP43 chlorophyll apoprotein = PsbC (summary available)
         Photosystem II CP47 chlorophyll apoprotein = PsbB (summary available)
         Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1-1 = PsbO (summary available)
         Photosystem II 10 kDa polypeptide = PsbR (summary available)
         Photosystem II core complex proteins psbY = PsbY (summary available)
         Inner membrane protein ALBINO3 = PsbX (summary available)
         Photosystem II reaction center W protein = PsbW (summary available)
         Photosystem II D2 protein = PsbD (summary available)
         Photosystem Q(B) protein = PsbA (summary available)

Summary:
Photosystem II (PSII) is a pigment protein complex in the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts that drives electron transfer from water to plastoquinone with concommitant oxygen evolution. In higher plants, PSII consists of > 20 subunits, including both membrane integral and extrinsically associated proteins [Wollman99].

The PSII reaction center complex is composed of the D1 and D2 proteins, the α and β subunits of cytochrome b559 and the Psbl protein, which is capable of of primary charge separation and subsequent electron transfer [Nanba87]. The PSII core complex also contains the light-harvesting chlorophyll a binding proteins CP47 and CP43, the oxygen evolving 33 kD protein, and several low molecular mass proteins. CP47 and CP43 are closely associated with the PSII reaction center complex and are located on opposite sides of the complex.

The functional form of PSII in the thylakoid membrane consists of the PSII core and the associated light-harvesting complex (LHC). In PSCII-LHCII supercomplexes, LHCII trimers consisting of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 anchor to the PSII dimers [Boekema95]. The minor antenna complex proteins CP29, CP26 and CP24 may serve as linker proteins between LHCII and PSII [Nelson06].

Citations: [Dey97, Shi04]

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid


Enzymatic reaction of: photosystem II

EC Number: 1.10.3.9

4 hν + 2 a plastoquinone + 2 H2O <=> 2 a plastoquinol + oxygen

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is physiologically favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: photosynthesis light reactions


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II 22 kDa protein

Synonyms: PsbS, CP22

Gene: psbS Accession Number: AT1G44575 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 22.0 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:Q9XF91 , Pride:Q9XF91 , Protein Model Portal:Q9XF91 , SMR:Q9XF91 , String:Q9XF91 , UniProt:Q9XF91

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , PDB:Structure:2AUI , PDB:Structure:2AVL , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
PsbS may be involved in non-photochemical quenching. This is a process that maintains the balance between light energy dissipation and utilization to minimize generation of free radicals, thereby protecting the plant against photo-oxidative damage [Li00a].

Citations: [Jansson99]


Subunit of photosystem II: Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3-1

Synonyms: PsbQ

Gene: psbQ Accession Number: AT4G21280 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 16.0 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid [Grover99]

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:Q9XFT3 , Pride:Q9XFT3 , Protein Model Portal:Q9XFT3 , SMR:Q9XFT3 , String:Q9XFT3 , UniProt:Q9XFT3

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR008797 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023222 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF05757

Summary:
PsbQ is an oxygen evolving enhancer protein, required for PSII assembly and or stability. It is required fo photoautotrophic growth under conditions of low light [Yi06].


Subunit of photosystem II: PsbP domain-containing protein 1

Synonyms: OEC23-like protein 3, PsbP-related thylakoid lumenal protein 1

Gene: PPD1 Accession Number: AT4G15510 (MetaCyc)

Locations: plastid, cytoplasm

Molecular Weight: 32.2 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0031976 - plastid thylakoid

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-58590N , PhylomeDB:O23403 , Pride:O23403 , Protein Model Portal:O23403 , SMR:O23403 , String:O23403 , UniProt:O23403

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002683 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016123 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01789

Summary:
Belongs to the psbP family of proteins which form part of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). PsbP is a nuclear encoded extrinsic subunit of PSII that enhances the water-splitting reaction [Ishihara07].

Citations: [Lin99]


Subunit of photosystem II: PsbP domain-containing protein 2

Synonyms: PsbP-related thylakoid lumenal protein 3

Gene: PPD2 Accession Number: AT2G28605 (MetaCyc)

Locations: plastid, cytoplasm

Molecular Weight: 25.8 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0031976 - plastid thylakoid

Summary:
Belongs to the PsbP family of proteins which are part of the oxygen evolving complex. PsbP is a nuclear encoded extrinsic subunit of PSII that enhances the water-splitting reaction [Ishihara07].

Citations: [Lin99]


Subunit of photosystem II: PsbP domain-containing protein 3

Synonyms: OEC23-like protein 2

Gene: PPD3 Accession Number: AT1G76450 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 27.5 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:Q9S720 , Pride:Q9S720 , Protein Model Portal:Q9S720 , SMR:Q9S720 , String:Q9S720 , UniProt:Q9S720

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002683 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016123 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01789

Summary:
Belongs to the PsbP family of proteins which are part of the oxygen evolving complex. PsbP is a nuclear encoded extrinsic subunit of PSII that enhances the water-splitting reaction [Ishihara07].

Citations: [Theologis00]


Subunit of photosystem II: PsbP domain-containing protein 4

Synonyms: OEC23-like protein 5

Gene: PPD4 Accession Number: AT1G77090 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 28.5 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:O49292 , Pride:O49292 , Protein Model Portal:O49292 , SMR:O49292 , String:3702.AT1G77090.1-P , UniProt:O49292

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002683 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016123 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01789

Summary:
Belongs to the PsbP family of proteins which are part of the oxygen evolving complex. PsbP is a nuclear encoded extrinsic subunit of PSII that enhances the water-splitting reaction [Ishihara07].

Citations: [Theologis00]


Subunit of photosystem II: PsbP domain-containing protein 5

Synonyms: OEC23-like protein 6, PsbP-related thylakoid lumenal protein 4

Gene: PPD5 Accession Number: AT5G11450 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 33.3 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:P82715 , Pride:P82715 , Protein Model Portal:P82715 , SMR:P82715 , String:3702.AT5G11450.1-P , UniProt:P82715

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002683 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016123 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01789

Summary:
Belongs to the PsbP family of proteins which are part of the oxygen evolving complex. PsbP is a nuclear encoded extrinsic subunit of PSII that enhances the water-splitting reaction [Ishihara07].

Citations: [Tabata00]


Subunit of photosystem II: PsbP domain-containing protein 6

Synonyms: OEC23-like protein 1

Gene: PPD6 Accession Number: AT3G56650 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 28.6 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:Q9LXX5 , Pride:Q9LXX5 , Protein Model Portal:Q9LXX5 , SMR:Q9LXX5 , String:3702.AT3G56650.1-P , UniProt:Q9LXX5

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002683 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016123 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01789

Summary:
Belongs to the PsbP family of proteins which are part of the oxygen evolving complex. PsbP is a nuclear encoded extrinsic subunit of PSII that enhances the water-splitting reaction [Ishihara07].

Citations: [Nagate07]


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II reaction center protein I

Synonyms: PsbI

Gene: psbI Accession Number: ATCG00080 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 4.1 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:P62100 , SMR:P62100 , String:P62100 , UniProt:P62100

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003686 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02532

Summary:
A component of the reaction center of photosystem II, PsbI is one of the many proteins that interacts with PAM68 [Armbruster10].

Citations: [Irrgang95]


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II reaction center protein H

Synonyms: PsbH

Gene: psbH Accession Number: ATCG00710 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 7.7 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: Mint:MINT-8360514 , Pride:P56780 , Protein Model Portal:P56780 , SMR:P56780 , String:3702.ATCG00710.1-P , UniProt:P56780

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001056 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00737 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD003584

Summary:
Chloroplast encoded PsbH is important for PSII assembly. It is one of the many proteins that interacts with PAM68 [Armbruster10].

Citations: [Felder01, Sato99]


Subunit of photosystem II: cytochrome b-559 α-subunit

Synonyms: PsbE, PSII reaction center subunit V

Gene: psbE Accession Number: ATCG00580 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 9.3 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: Pride:P56779 , Protein Model Portal:P56779 , SMR:P56779 , String:P56779 , UniProt:P56779

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006216 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006217 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013081 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013082 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00283 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00284 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00537

Summary:
The apoproteins of cytochrome b559 which is tightly associated with the reaction center of PSII, are encoded by the psbE and psbF genes [Mor95]. This chloroplast encoded b-type cytochrome is composed of an α and β subunit heterodimer which each carry a histidine residue. The heme cofactor is coordinated between these residues [Pakrasi91].

Citations: [Pesaresi01, Sato99]


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II CP43 chlorophyll apoprotein

Synonyms: PsbC, PSII 43 kDa protein, Photosystem II 44 kDa reaction center protein, Protein CP-43

Gene: psbC Accession Number: ATCG00280 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 50.3 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: Mint:MINT-8360524 , Pride:P56778 , Protein Model Portal:P56778 , SMR:P56778 , String:3702.ATCG00280.1-P , UniProt:P56778

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000932 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005869 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00421

Summary:
Chloroplast encoded CP43 interacts with PAM68 [Armbruster10]. It binds chlorophyll and catalyzes the primary light-induced photochemical processes of PSII.

Citations: [Sato99]


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II CP47 chlorophyll apoprotein

Synonyms: PsbB, CP-47, PSII 47 kDa protein

Gene: psbB Accession Number: ATCG00680 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 56.0 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: Pride:P56777 , Protein Model Portal:P56777 , SMR:P56777 , String:3702.ATCG00680.1-P , UniProt:P56777

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000932 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR017486 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00421

Summary:
CP47 is core antenna chlorophyll binding subunit of PSII [Sobotka05]. It is made only when D1 has successfully assembled with D2. Its recruitment to form the PSII core complex facilitates the further binding of the oxygen evolving enhancer (OEE) proteins [Minai06]. CP47 is a crucial component for proper PSII function [Monod92]. CP47 interacts with PAM68 [Armbruster10].

Citations: [Tanaka01, Sato99]


Subunit of photosystem II: Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1-1

Synonyms: PsbO, Manganese-stabilizing protein 1, 33 kDa thylakoid membrane protein

Gene: psbO Accession Number: AT5G66570 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 33.0 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: Mint:MINT-2583944 , PhylomeDB:P23321 , Pride:P23321 , Protein Model Portal:P23321 , SMR:P23321 , String:P23321 , UniProt:P23321

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002628 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011250 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01716

Summary:
At least three extrinsic proteins and three inorganic cofactors (Mn, Ca and Cl) form a module called the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), which is the catalytic center for water oxidation [Popelkova]. This complex is bound to the PSII core proteins. Nuclear encoded PsbO also called the manganese-stabilizing protein, is the largest subunit of the OEC and is located on the lumen side of thylakoid membranes [Popelkova]. In the presence of physiological concentrations of Ca2+ and Cl, PsbO promotes retention and stabilization of the Mn cluster in the OEC [Popelkova][Yi05]. PsbO is crucial in the oxygen evolution reaction [Pazos01].

Citations: [Jain98, Ko90]


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II 10 kDa polypeptide

Synonyms: PsbR

Gene: psbR Accession Number: AT1G79040 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 14.6 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid
GO:0031976 - plastid thylakoid

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:P27202 , Pride:P27202 , String:P27202 , UniProt:P27202

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006814 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF04725

Summary:
This protein may be associated with the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II [GilGomez91].


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II core complex proteins psbY

Synonyms: PsbY, L-arginine-metabolizing enzyme

Gene: psbY Accession Number: AT1G67740 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 19.4 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:O49347 , Pride:O49347 , Protein Model Portal:O49347 , String:3702.AT1G67740.1-P , UniProt:O49347

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009388 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF06298

Summary:
Nuclear encoded PsbY yields a polyprotein that is cleaved into two polypeptides that can form a heterodimer [Gau98]. The polypeptides termed PSBY-1 and -2 bind Mn2+ and have L-arginine metabolizing enzymic activity [Gau98]. They are a component of the core of photosystem II in higher plants.


Subunit of photosystem II: Inner membrane protein ALBINO3

Synonyms: PsbX

Gene: psbX Accession Number: AT2G28800 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 50.2 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: DisProt:DP00662 , Mint:MINT-7992824 , PhylomeDB:Q8LBP4 , Pride:Q8LBP4 , Protein Model Portal:Q8LBP4 , String:Q8LBP4 , UniProt:Q8LBP4

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001708 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR028055 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR12428 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02096

Summary:
This protein gets its name from the fact that mutations in the PsbX gene result in a pale green phenotype from reduced levels of chlorophyll in the chloroplasts [Sundberg97]. Mutants in this gene cause plants to not develop beyond the cotyledon stage. Nuclear encoded Albino3 (ALB3) protein is localized in chloroplast membranes [Gohre06]. ALB3 shares some homology with OXA1 and YidC which mediate the insertion and assembly of a range of membrane proteins in mitochondria and bacteria respectively [Yi].

In Arabidopsis thaliana ALB3 has been shown to be required for the insertion of some light harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins (LHCP) into the thylakoid membrane [Moore00]. This requires a convoluted interaction between ALB3, cpSRP, its receptor cpFtsY and hydrophobic LHCP [Bals10].

Citations: [Shi99]


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II reaction center W protein

Synonyms: PsbW

Gene: psbW Accession Number: AT2G30570 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 13.6 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: PhylomeDB:Q39194 , String:Q39194 , UniProt:Q39194

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009806 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF07123

Summary:
PsbW is an essential part of the core PSII reaction center [Minai06]. It stabilizes dimeric PSII and without it there is a reduction of monomeric PSII and an absence of dimeric PSII.

Citations: [Shi00, Lin99]


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem II D2 protein

Synonyms: PsbD, Photosystem Q(A) protein

Gene: psbD Accession Number: ATCG00270 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 39.5 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: Mint:MINT-8360522 , Pride:P56761 , Protein Model Portal:P56761 , SMR:P56761 , String:3702.ATCG00270.1-P , UniProt:P56761

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000484 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005868 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00124 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00256 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00244

Summary:
The PSII core complex consists of the chlorophyll binding proteins D1, D2, CP43, CP47 and cytochrome b559 which are assembled in a specific order [Sobotka05]. The chloroplast encoded psaD protein D2 forms a dimer with D1 and together comprise the reaction center proteins in the core of the PSII complex. They interact with the P680 chlorophylls and subsequent electron acceptors. The heterodimer binds two chlorophylls, pheophytin and shares a non-heme iron. The D1/D2 heterodimer also interacts with PAM68 [Armbruster10].

Citations: [Sato99]


Subunit of photosystem II: Photosystem Q(B) protein

Synonyms: PsbA, 32 kDa thylakoid membrane protein, Photosystem II protein D1

Gene: psbA Accession Number: ATCG00020 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid

Molecular Weight: 38.9 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009534 - chloroplast thylakoid

Unification Links: Mint:MINT-8360520 , Pride:P83755 , Protein Model Portal:P83755 , SMR:P83755 , String:3702.ATCG00020.1-P , UniProt:P83755

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000484 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005867 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00124 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00256 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00244

Summary:
The PSII core complex consists of the chlorophyll binding proteins D1, D2, CP43, CP47 and cytochrome b559 which are assembled in a specific order [Sobotka05]. The chloroplast encoded psaA protein D1 forms a dimer with D2 and together comprise the reaction center proteins in the core of the PSII complex. They interact with the P680 chlorophylls and subsequent electron acceptors. The heterodimer binds two chlorophylls, pheophytin and shares a non-heme iron. The D1/D2 heterodimer also interacts with PAM68 [Armbruster10].


References

Armbruster10: Armbruster U, Zuhlke J, Rengstl B, Kreller R, Makarenko E, Ruhle T, Schunemann D, Jahns P, Weisshaar B, Nickelsen J, Leister D (2010). "The Arabidopsis thylakoid protein PAM68 is required for efficient D1 biogenesis and photosystem II assembly." Plant Cell 22(10);3439-60. PMID: 20923938

Bals10: Bals T, Dunschede B, Funke S, Schunemann D (2010). "Interplay between the cpSRP pathway components, the substrate LHCP and the translocase Alb3: an in vivo and in vitro study." FEBS Lett 584(19);4138-44. PMID: 20828566

Boekema95: Boekema EJ, Hankamer B, Bald D, Kruip J, Nield J, Boonstra AF, Barber J, Rogner M (1995). "Supramolecular structure of the photosystem II complex from green plants and cyanobacteria." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(1);175-9. PMID: 7816811

Dey97: Dey, PM, Harborne, JB "Plant Biochemistry." Academic Press 1997.

Felder01: Felder S, Meierhoff K, Sane AP, Meurer J, Driemel C, Plucken H, Klaff P, Stein B, Bechtold N, Westhoff P (2001). "The nucleus-encoded HCF107 gene of Arabidopsis provides a link between intercistronic RNA processing and the accumulation of translation-competent psbH transcripts in chloroplasts." Plant Cell 2001;13(9);2127-41. PMID: 11549768

Gau98: Gau AE, Thole HH, Sokolenko A, Altschmied L, Hermann RG, Pistorius EK (1998). "PsbY, a novel manganese-binding, low-molecular-mass protein associated with photosystem II." Mol Gen Genet 1998;260(1);56-68. PMID: 9829828

GilGomez91: Gil-Gomez G, Marrero PF, Haro D, Ayte J, Hegardt FG (1991). "Characterization of the gene encoding the 10 kDa polypeptide of photosystem II from Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Mol Biol 17(3);517-22. PMID: 1884004

Gohre06: Gohre V, Ossenbuhl F, Crevecoeur M, Eichacker LA, Rochaix JD (2006). "One of two alb3 proteins is essential for the assembly of the photosystems and for cell survival in Chlamydomonas." Plant Cell 18(6);1454-66. PMID: 16679460

Grover99: Grover M, Gaur T, Kochhar A, Maheshwari SC, Tyagi AK (1999). "Nucleotide sequence of psbQ gene for 16-kDa protein of oxygen-evolving complex from Arabidopsis thaliana and regulation of its expression." DNA Res 1999;6(3);173-7. PMID: 10470848

Irrgang95: Irrgang KD, Shi LX, Funk C, Schroder WP (1995). "A nuclear-encoded subunit of the photosystem II reaction center." J Biol Chem 1995;270(29);17588-93. PMID: 7615565

Ishihara07: Ishihara S, Takabayashi A, Ido K, Endo T, Ifuku K, Sato F (2007). "Distinct functions for the two PsbP-like proteins PPL1 and PPL2 in the chloroplast thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 145(3);668-79. PMID: 17827269

Jain98: Jain PK, Kochhar A, Khurana JP, Tyagi AK (1998). "The psbO gene for 33-kDa precursor polypeptide of the oxygen-evolving complex in Arabidopsis thaliana--nucleotide sequence and control of its expression." DNA Res 1998;5(4);221-8. PMID: 9802567

Jansson99: Jansson S (1999). "A guide to the Lhc genes and their relatives in Arabidopsis/IT>." Trends Plant Sci 4(6);236-240. PMID: 10366881

Ko90: Ko K, Granell A, Bennett J, Cashmore AR (1990). "Isolation and characterization of cDNAs from Lycopersicon esculentum and Arabidopsis thaliana encoding the 33 kDa protein of the photosystem II-associated oxygen-evolving complex." Plant Mol Biol 14(2);217-27. PMID: 2101691

Li00a: Li XP, Bjorkman O, Shih C, Grossman AR, Rosenquist M, Jansson S, Niyogi KK (2000). "A pigment-binding protein essential for regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting." Nature 2000;403(6768);391-5. PMID: 10667783

Lin99: Lin X, Kaul S, Rounsley S, Shea TP, Benito MI, Town CD, Fujii CY, Mason T, Bowman CL, Barnstead M, Feldblyum TV, Buell CR, Ketchum KA, Lee J, Ronning CM, Koo HL, Moffat KS, Cronin LA, Shen M, Pai G, Van Aken S, Umayam L, Tallon LJ, Gill JE, Adams MD, Carrera AJ, Creasy TH, Goodman HM, Somerville CR, Copenhaver GP, Preuss D, Nierman WC, White O, Eisen JA, Salzberg SL, Fraser CM, Venter JC (1999). "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 2 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana." Nature 402(6763);761-8. PMID: 10617197

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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